### The sampling theorem or Nyquist-Shannon theorem

This post deals with one of the fundamental theorem of signal processing: the sampling theorem or Nyquist-Shannon theorem (have a look on wikipedia). What is the right sampling to transform an analog signal to a digital one?First of all the news:Â I decided that having a friend when I try to write about signal processing is useful. So I gave a name to my friendand the name I chose is**Wavy**:)…but I had a look on google for ‘wavy’ and I found many beautiful images of wavy hair..for this reason, now, Wavy becamewith some hair :). Let Wavy answer to the questions of our latest post.

#### Questions

- What happen if we use longer nsample?
- What happen if we use smaller sampling frequency?

##### First of all, let’s enunciate the sampling theorem:

“*If a continuous signal is band-limited, that is its Fourier spectrum is null above a given frequency , and if the sampling rate is higher than 2 times the maximum frequency Â of the signal, than the continuous signal can be perfectly recovered by the discrete signalÂ*

*if*

*“*is the Sampling Frequency.In other words, if we want to fair digitalize a continuous signal which has as maximum frequency content , we need to sample the data with a frequency at minimum equal to , that is peak a point each time.At this point let’s come back to Wavy and his questions, and let’s start from second question:

- What happen if we use smaller sampling frequency?

Let’s simulate again a sinusoidal signal which has as main frequency nu=50Hz

InÂ [1]:

```
### importing the library
from __future__ import print_function
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
from scipy.fftpack import fft
# sample spacing
sampling=1024
nsample = 500
dt = 1.0 / sampling
x = np.linspace(0.0, nsample*dt,nsample)
nu=50.0# frequency in Hz of the sine function
y = np.sin(nu * 2.0*np.pi*x)
yf = fft(y)
xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
plt.plot(x, (y[0:nsample]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
plt.plot(xf, 2.0/nsample * np.abs(yf[0:nsample/2]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
```

We have used sampling frequency sampling=1024 Hz which is certainly $> 2*nu$.
Now let’s do the same experiment using sampling=$60$Hz, which is smaller than 2 times nu

InÂ [2]:

```
# sample spacing
sampling=60
nsample = 500
dt = 1.0 / sampling
x = np.linspace(0.0, nsample*dt,nsample)
nu=50.0# frequency in Hz of the sine function
y = np.sin(nu * 2.0*np.pi*x)
yf = fft(y)
xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
plt.plot(x, (y[0:nsample]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
plt.plot(xf, 2.0/nsample * np.abs(yf[0:nsample/2]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
```

The signal in time domain isn’t not certainly a single sinusoidal signal at $50$Hz, but seems a beating of 2 different frequency. The main frequency is not anymore $50$Hz, but $10$ Hz…
Now let’s sample the data at $70$Hz

InÂ [3]:

```
# sample spacing
sampling=70
nsample = 500
dt = 1.0 / sampling
x = np.linspace(0.0, nsample*dt,nsample)
nu=50.0# frequency in Hz of the sine function
y = np.sin(nu * 2.0*np.pi*x)
yf = fft(y)
#xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
plt.plot(x, (y[0:nsample]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
plt.plot(xf, 2.0/nsample * np.abs(yf[0:nsample/2]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
```

Wow…the main frequency is $20$Hz…
But $60-50$ is 10 and $70-50$ is 20!!

InÂ [4]:

```
# sample spacing
sampling=80
nsample = 500
dt = 1.0 / sampling
x = np.linspace(0.0, nsample*dt,nsample)
nu=50.0# frequency in Hz of the sine function
y = np.sin(nu * 2.0*np.pi*x)
yf = fft(y)
#xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
plt.plot(x, (y[0:nsample]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
plt.plot(xf, 2.0/nsample * np.abs(yf[0:nsample/2]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
```

If we use $sampling=80$Hz, again the main frequency is $sampling-nu=30$Hz

This is not a strange trick, this is the phenomenon of

**, Wavy will afford in a next post.***Aliasing*#### Frequency resolution

- What happen if we use longer nsample?

InÂ [6]:

```
# sample spacing
sampling=1024
nsample = 1000
dt = 1.0 / sampling
x = np.linspace(0.0, nsample*dt,nsample)
nu=50.0# frequency in Hz of the sine function
y = np.sin(nu * 2.0*np.pi*x)
yf = fft(y)
xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
plt.plot(x, (y[0:nsample]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
plt.plot(xf, 2.0/nsample * np.abs(yf[0:nsample/2]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
```

InÂ [7]:

```
# sample spacing
sampling=1024
nsample = 10000
dt = 1.0 / sampling
x = np.linspace(0.0, nsample*dt,nsample)
nu=50.0# frequency in Hz of the sine function
y = np.sin(nu * 2.0*np.pi*x)
yf = fft(y)
xf = np.linspace(0.0, 1.0/(2.0*dt), nsample/2)
plt.plot(x, (y[0:nsample]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
plt.plot(xf, 2.0/nsample * np.abs(yf[0:nsample/2]))
plt.grid()
plt.show()
```

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